There is only one file type that uses the .MS-ONE-STUB extension:
Microsoft OneNote Stub
An MS-ONE-STUB file is a shortcut used to open a Microsoft OneNote notebook that is stored within Microsoft OneDrive. It contains a reference to the notebook that it opens. MS-ONE-STUB files are created by both OneDrive and OneDrive for Business.
Microsoft OneNote is a digital notebook application that allows users to take notes on their computer and share those notes with others. Microsoft OneDrive is a cloud storage application that, among other things, allows users to upload, access, and share their OneNote notebooks over the Internet.
When a OneDrive user creates or opens a new cloud-based notebook, OneDrive stores some files associated with that notebook on the user's PC. One of these files is an MS-ONE-STUB file, which is a pointer file that references and can be used to open the cloud-based notebook.
MS-ONE-STUB files are not meant to be opened. To open the cloud-based Microsoft OneNote notebook that an MS-ONE-STUB file points to, locate the file in Windows Explorer and double-click it. Provided you have access to Microsoft OneDrive, the notebook associated with your MS-ONE-STUB file will open in OneNote.
If, for some reason, double-clicking your MS-ONE-STUB file does not open your notebook in OneDrive, you may be able to find a local backup of your OneNote notebook by opening Windows Explorer and following the path:
Note that, in the above path, UserName is your user name and #.# is OneNote's current version number.
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Updated: February 6, 2021